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к концу 1980-х годов
USAGE: к концу ()80-х годов • By the late ()80s ...
к концу 80-х годов
USAGE: к концу ()80-х годов • By the late ()80s ...
к которому мы приступаем
• The study of ... , which we now undertake (or to which we now proceed), is in keeping with ...
к которому приближается
• The limit approached by the expression ...
к минимуму
см. сводить к минимуму
к моменту
• By the time of body closure the embryonic neurons must ...
к настоящему времени
. в настоящее время • By now the general pattern should be clear. • To review analytical methods and results to date, ... • On the basis of discoveries ...
к началу 1980-х годов
USAGE: к началу ()80-х годов • By the early ()80s ...
к началу 80-х годов
USAGE: к началу ()80-х годов • By the early ()80s ...
к началу века
USAGE: к началу (20-го) века • By the early (20th) century ...
к нашему удивлению
• Surprisingly, we find that pulse spreading is significantly affected by material dispersion.
к ним относится
• Among these are the accumulation and an increase in ...
к своему великому удивлению
• Much to their surprise they discovered that ...
к северу от
см. к западу от
к счастью
• Luckily (or Fortunately), other chemical imprints can help to ...
к тому времени когда
• By the time the negative aperture is closed, the modulator shutters are usually in printing position.
к тому же
. кроме того • What is more [or Moreover, or In addition (to that), or Besides], short circuiting is eliminated.
к удивлению оказалось, что
USAGE: к удивлению (учёных) оказалось, что • Surprisingly, it was found that ...
к числу ... относятся
• Among the many organic acids are acetic and oxalic acids and phenol.
к этому времени
• Segmentation is complete on the formation of ... , by which time the germinal plate covers ...
к этому можно добавить
• To this we can add the large quantities of ...
к этому следует добавить
• To this must be added the amount of head necessary to ...
к югу от
см. к западу от
кабина для работы в любую погоду
USAGE: кабина для работы в любую погоду (на строительном кране) • An all-weather cab.
каждодневный
. в каждодневной практике • The day-to-day operation of the observatory ...
каждому ... . соответствует
• For every contraction mapping ... this equation has a unique solution. • For every kind of particle there is an antiparticle.
каждый
. на каждый; через каждые ... градусов • Three amino acids are encoded by six codons apiece (or each). • How many samples of 25.0 mg each could be ...
каждый ... отдельно взятый
см. каждый в отдельности
каждый в отдельности
• Each of the loops is sufficient by itself to deliver 100 percent of the required cooling. • Although such resonant forces are individually small, ... • The corrections ...
каждый день
см. ежедневно
каждый должен сам найти ответ на этот вопрос
• Each of us must determine the answer for himself after examining the potential value of the computer.
каждый из
• These atoms each have six valence electrons (or have six ... each).
каждый из двух
. любой из двух • Either (of the two) process(es) could initiate a chain reaction.
каждый из которых определяется
• There will be different simple wave solutions, each (being) determined by one of roots of Eq. (.14).
каждый конкретный
• The expansion shall be allowed for in the die design for each specific (or individual) application.
кажущийся
. казалось бы • The duality of origin may be perceived to be more apparent than real. • The apparent position of a star ... • If the two diagonal pairs of lights ...
казалось бы
• These fields are always present, even in seemingly perfect crystals. • This seemingly difficult task turns out to be relatively simple.
как
см. каким образом
как
см. каким образом
как ... , так и
. одинаково необходим для • Scientists and engineers alike (or Scientists as well as engineers, or Both scientists and engineers) were intrigued by ... ...
как будто бы
• This species will be treated as though it were a well-defined molecule. • The laser beam spot size increased as if a diverging lens had been placed in the resonator. • The ...
как будто бы он был
• Where steeply dipping, layered rocks underlie a hillside, the upper edges of the layers are commonly turned downhill as if bent. • We subtract the two reactions as though ...
как бы велик ни был
• The group velocity is less than the speed of light, however (or no matter how) great the phase velocity (may be).
как бы ни был
• Useful as these measures may be, we are faced with ...
как бы то ни было
• Be it as it may, we certainly know enough to sketch the broad outline of ...
как в отдельности, так и вместе
• Future progress with both processes — individually and in combination — will be followed with interest.
как в случае
• If, as with magnesium, alternating current is used, ...
как вам известно
• As you are well aware, ...
как видно
• The enthalpy of the reaction is (or can be) seen to be equal to ...
как видно из
. как показано на рисунке; как явствует из • There is but little difference, as indicated by (or in) Fig. 11. • As the statement indicates ...
как видно из вышеизложенного
• As is evident (or obvious) from (or As evidenced by) the foregoing (account),answers to these questions are ...
как видно из иллюстрации
см. как показано на рисунке
как видно из названия
• As its name implies (or indicates, or shows) (or As the name suggests) a pressure gauge is ... .
как видно из рисунка
см. как показано на рисунке
как всегда
• The variable arm IV, short as it usually is, has experienced some modifications.
как его стали называть
• The mineral sequences, or Barrovian zones, as they have come to be called, have been recognized in many metamorphic terrains.
как и
. подобно тому, как • Here, the wet equatorial areas, the rainfall mechanisms are ... • The boiling point of a pure liquid, like the melting point of a pure ...
как и было предсказано
• We found that IC1 is more soluble is chloroform, as predicted.
как и в
• Again, step 1, the temperature is constant. • As in wing theory, these components require an increase in blade angle. • As with all other kinds of theories, the foremost ...
как и в случае
• As for a function of a real variable, the inverse of differentiation of a function of a complex variable is integration. • As in the case of silver and gold, platinum metals ...
как и для
см. как и в случае
как и должно быть
• This term implies a dimensionless quantity as it must if its logarithm is to be taken.
как и ожидалось
• As (would be) expected, the response is a straight line with a slope.
как и прежде
см. как и раньше
как и при
• As with (or As in the case of) normal reflection, the fluid is constrained. • As is the case with myxoedema, ...
как и раньше
• Cytidine is found rarely as before (or previously).
как и следовало ожидать
• As one would expect, Eq. 11 shows that ... • As would (or could, or might) be expected under these conditions, such engines received primary emphasis. • As (was to be) ...
как и у
• As with (or As in the case of) thallium, the room temperature ductility of niobium is relatively high. • As is true of all proteins, so with hemoglobin the charge on the ...
как легко заметить
• As will readily be observed (or As is easy to see), there is no sharp line of demarcation between ...
как может показаться с первого взгляда
• These holes serve to support cylindrical guides for the top platen, and not for the rods, as might appear at first sight.
как можно ближе
• One set of gauges was placed as close to the junction as possible.
как можно было ожидать
• As one might expect, there is a strong general correlation between the two measures. • The evidence is not as strong as might be hoped for, but it is suggestive. • As ...
как можно быстрее
• It is desirable to burn the mixture as quickly as possible.
как можно дальше друг от друга
• The ν-values for the two glasses should lie as far apart as possible.
как можно меньше
• To have as few photon-electron conversions as possible, ...
как мы увидим дальше
• As we shall see subsequently (or later), ...
как например
• Incomplete combustion, as in the internal combustion engine, forms smokes. • Such reactions usually occur in polar solvents, such as water, methanol, or acetone. • ...
как насчёт
см. а как насчёт
как нетрудно понять
• As can be readily appreciated, such contrast information is essential for ...
как ни странно
• Strangely enough (or Strange though it may seem),first experiments employed a shock temperature rise of only 50°C.
как ни удивительно
• Surprisingly, only one unidentified peak with substantial intensity is observed.
как общее правило
• As a general rule, the gold content ranges from 85 to 95%.
как обычно
см. как всегда; обычным путём
как одно целое
• The earth's crust and a significant portion of the upper mantle move together as a unit.
как описано
см. как указано
как отмечено выше
. как указано • As noted (or indicated, or mentioned) above, the lower value is ...
как побочный результат
• A theory of cell respiration has been developed as a by-product of the above-mentioned studies.
как показано в
• For two-dimensional flow, the hyperbolic condition may be obtained graphically, as illustrated (or shown) in Chapter 4. • As is shown in Sec. 14-3, ...
как показано выше
• As indicated (or discussed) earlier (or above), ...
как показано на рисунке
. как видно из • The volume varies linearly with the temperature in the manner indicated (or shown) in Fig.. • As illustrated (in Fig. 4), these bearings are ...
как показывает название
. как видно из названия • This publication, as the title implies, is primarily concerned with ...
как правило
• Hydrometallurgical processes, as a rule, are applied to ... • A field lens is generally placed behind the reticle.
как предполагалось
• When these molecules behave as expected, ...
как принято
• This reaction is written, as is the convention, as a reduction reaction. • As is customary, let ξ represent the degree of ...
как раз столько, сколько требуется для
• For the Crab pulsar the energetic electrons produced in this way have energies of 104 electron volts, just right to produce the observed X-radiation from the nebula.
как раз такой, какой
• These properties are just the ones predicted by ...
как самоцель
• Reaction mechanisms are not treated here as an end in themselves.
как скоро выяснится
• However, as will soon become evident (or apparent, or obvious, or clear),logic was faulty.
как сообщают
• This machine reportedly operates [or is reported (or said, or claimed) to operate] at a speed of 20,000 cycles per minute.
как средство против
• This agent is effective against certain types of cancer.
как стало ясно после
• As was apparent after the acceptance of the quantum-wave relation, ...
как таковой
. сам по себе • This movement, as such, is not important to the navigator.
как только
• As soon as the crust becomes continuous, ... • Embryonic development begins as soon as the eggs are laid.
как указано
. как отмечено выше • As already noted, ... • Adjust the proportional band as in par A.1 above. • The system should be filled with the fluid as directed ...
как указано в
USAGE: как указано (показано) в • The width of the -band changes with temperature in the manner shown in Fig. 4. • As suggested in Fig. 15-2, ... • ...
как указано выше
• As pointed out (or indicated, or shown, or stated, or mentioned) above, ... • Sodium hydrogen-carbonate precipitates and is treated as noted (or indicated) above. • As ...
как указано ниже
• However, as noted (or indicated, or remarked, or stated, or shown, or pointed out) later (or below), special low-temperature enamels are fired at 1280 to 1350°F.
как упомянуто в
• As we have mentioned in Chapter 3, ...
как упомянуто выше
см. как отмечено выше; как указано
как утверждают
• The arch support is claimed to be less costly.
как функция
• is plotted against (or versus, or vs., or as a function of) .
как часто бывает
• If, as is often the case (or as often happens), a complexing agent is a weak acid, ...
как часто случается
• If, as is often the case (or as often happens), a complexing agent is a weak acid, ...
как чисто
USAGE: как чисто (на чертежах) • Mill or grind to clean up (or until the surface "cleans").
как это бывает
• As is sometimes the case, ...
как это делает
• Synthetic chelates which absorb and desorb oxygen reversibly, as does hemoglobin, have been prepared in the laboratory.
как это делается
• This loss can be eliminated as is done at our plant.
как это делается в случае отсутствия
• The modulator shutters are not permitted to open as wide as would be the case if the undercorrection path were nonexistent.
как это имеет место в
• When the bonding atoms are rigidly positioned around the metal by the organic framework, as (is the case) in the porphins, the resulting increase in stability is unusual. • ...
как это имеет место при
• Vapour-phase dehydrogenation of isoalcohols the preparation of acetone from ... • If the vertical velocity component is small, as it is in the large-scale motion of the ...
как это ни странно
• Strange as it may seem, ...
как это обычно делается
• As is customary when a new phenomenon is discovered, he tried to reproduce ...
как это сделал
• Consider now, as was done by Debye in 1912, the contribution to ...
как это увязать с
• How does all of this fit into the general scheme of things?
как это часто бывает
• Galvanic corrosion results from ... , as is often the case, for example, in hull piping systems.
как явствует из
. как видно из • As may be inferred [or As is clear (or evident, or obvious)] from the graph ... • As the data of Table 5-5 suggest, ...
какая-то доля
• The refracting ray loses a fraction of its power at each reflection.
какие происходят
• The instrument cannot be used for sharp density changes such as occur at the shock front itself.
каким бы ни казался
• Bright as the future of composites seem to be, there is still a great deal of work to be done. • Significant as such a factor might seem, it is not as important as ...
каким образом
• This indicates the manner in which DE varies with flow rate. • It is necessary to consider more closely the way the two types of microscope produce their images.
каким-либо другим путём
• This device converts electric energy into light, heat, or mechanical energy, or otherwise consumes electric energy as in ...
каков бы ни был
• Whatever (or No matter what) the initial direction of the particles (may be), they will soon be moving perpendicularly to the wave front.
какова бы ни была причина этого
см. чем бы это ни было вызвано
каково строение ... ?
• How are such molecules constructed?
каковы преимущества или недостатки ... по сравнению с ... ?
• How does the new instrument compare with the other light detector?
какое место он занимает в ... ?
• What are fibre bundles and how do they enter into physics?
какое расстояние покрывает ... ?
• How far does a molecule travel between collisions?
какой бы ни
• Whatever order you use, you will find ...
какой бы он ни был
• Floods can be catastrophic; disastrous as they may be, we must consider them as the expression of natural stream behaviour.
какой только можно себе представить
• Any conceivable number can be represented by ...
какой-либо
. в каком-либо направлении • When any(one) cock is opened, ... • The maximum rate of change of a particular (or a certain) characteristic of the orbit ...
какой-нибудь
см. всего лишь; какой-либо
какой-нибудь один
• The hydroxyl proton does not belong to any one molecule but to many molecules.
какой-то
. в какой-то точке; за какие-то секунды • At some point on the earth's surface ...
какой-то момент
см. в какой-то момент
какую роль он играет в
см. какое место он занимает в ... ?
калиброванный в единицах расстояния
• Some FM radars use electronic frequency meters calibrated in range as indicators.
калибровать по
• The screens are calibrated against standard filters. • The analytical cells were calibrated with known mixtures of ortho- and parahydrogen. • The changes in temperature ...
калибровка по
• Calibration against a black body radiator ... • Calibration with a standard solution of ...
камень преткновения
• The misapplication of pushbutton and selector switches has been a stumbling block for many control systems.
канавка
. иметь канавку; с канавкой; с прямыми канавками • A tap having three flutes is recommended.
капитальный ремонт
• Major repairs (or Overhaul).
капля
см. добавлять каплями; по капле
карго
• The first shipload of Russian coking coal reached Japan in ...
кардинальный вопрос
• The questions at issue for any food additive are whether or not it is necessary and, if so, whether or not it is safe.
карманный
• A pocket[/b[b]sized) test set.
картина
см. набросать общую картину
картина абсорбции и т.п.
• Molecules with permanent dipoles often show complex patterns of absorption.
картина вырисовывается
см. начинает вырисовываться картина
картина потока
• The surface drag changes the flow pattern.
карьерный способ
горн. см. добывать карьерным способом
касание
см. точка касания
касательная к
• The tangent to the curve ...
касательный к
• These trajectories are semi-ellipses tangent to the orbit of the Earth.
касаться
• We will not go into (or dwell on) problems which ... • We have already touched on vapour pressure correlation forms. II . все, кого это касается; ...
касаться вопроса о том
• We have not yet touched on how the cosmic jets are fuelled.
касающийся
• Further interesting information relative to (or regarding, or relating to, or referring to, or concerning, or in relation to, or in respect to) the equation of state may be ...
катализатор
см. над катализатором
категорически отвергать
• Why did they reject his hypothesis so vigorously (or out of hand)?
категория
см. в эту рубрику входят; делить на категории; относиться к категории
катод
см. на катоде
качание маятника
см. колебание маятника
качественные показатели
• The qualitative characteristics of ...
качественный
. в количественном отношении; высококачественный; доброкачественный • We can make some qualitative conclusions ...
качественный анализ
• Qualitative analysis.
качество
см. в качестве; высшего качества; использоваться в качестве; критерий качества; служить в ...
качество ... снижено настолько, что
• The quality is degraded to the point (or extent) that it is not useful for its intended purpose.
качество снижается
• The grade of ore used for copper production has been going downward (or deteriorating).
квадрат
см. возводить в квадрат
квадрат расстояния
• The distance squared ...
квадрат со стороной в 6 дюймов
• Imagine a square six inches on a side. • The test fixture consisted of a slab of plate glass six inches square.
квадрат, построенный на
• Therefore the square on FB = the squares on FH, HB.
квадратичный по
• is quadratic in ().
квадратного сечения
• A square duct with water in turbulent flow was simulated. • A two-inch square bar ( со стороной в 2 дюйма ). • Positive clutches may consist of two or ...
квадратный корень
см. корень квадратный из 2
квадратура круга
• The ancient Greeks formulated the famous problem of "squaring the circle".
квантовать по
• The angular momentum is quantized in magnitude and direction.
кеплеровский
• This is a true Keplerian orbit.
кипение
см. доводить до кипения
кислород воздуха
• Atmospheric oxygen (or Oxygen of the air).
кислотный, основной
• Alcohols are less acidic than water; aromatic amines are less basic than aliphatic amines.
кишеть
• Paleozoic seas were swarming with highly differentiated aquatic plants.
класс
см. делиться на категории
класс отделки
см. высокий класс отделки поверхности
классификация
• Modern methods of malignancy grading take into consideration mitotic activity, ...
классификация в соответствии с тем, является ли
• The classification of tunneling rays according to whether the attenuation is effectively infinite or zero ...
классификация по
• The classification of human tumours by tissue type is given in ...
классифицировать
. делить на; относить к • Organic compounds may be categorized according to certain arrangements of atoms. • Chloramphenicol is classed as an ...
классифицировать по размерам
• Then the flows are ranked according to magnitude.
классифицироваться по
• The polar fluids are rated in order of their available power, toxicity, resistivity, ...
класть
см. положить
класть в основу
см. использовать в качестве основы для
клеймо
• High-temperature nuts have either an "H" or "A" stamped on the crown for identification.
клепать
см. приклёпывать к; склёпывать
климат
см. изменение климата
ключ к
. давать ключ к • A knowledge of these features is the key to planning a liquid-liquid extraction. • The clues (or keys) to this relationship lie in ...
ключ к пониманию
• The key to understanding how sediments are sorted ...
ключём к ... является
• The key to these questions lies with nucleic acids.
книзу
• The tube is tapered from top to bottom.
кнопка
см. нажим кнопки
кнопочное управление
см. с кнопочным управлением
ко времени писания этой книги
• At this writing no one has proved the theorem.
ко времени писания этой статьи
• At this writing no one has proved the theorem.
ковалентно связанный
• Covalently bonded atoms ...
ковать в горячем состоянии
• The weld metal may be hot forged without difficulty.
когда
. в случае, когда • The fuel material is cooled as (or while, or when) it passes down through the steam generator. • Once these operating requirements have been ...
когда возможно
см. во всех случаях, когда это возможно
когда идёт речь о
см. когда речь идёт о
когда он находится
• Aquatic beetles have several accessory structures to aid their respiration while underwater.
когда он не используется
• The beetle's wings are carefully folded when not in use.
когда речь идёт о
• When it comes to moving a piston-engine airplane through the air, there is no alternative to the propeller.
когда это не угрожает безопасности населения
• The consequences can be extremely costly even when public safety is not at issue.
когда это необходимо
• Cold water circulates, when required (or necessary) in the outer jacket carrying away the excess heat.
когда это целесообразно
• Use the unity method where appropriate.
когда, и только когда
см. если, и только если
когда-нибудь
. в будущем; в какой-то момент • These are the first hot-headed beryllium fasteners ever produced.
когда-то
см. одно время
когда-то должен прийти конец
• There is a limit to the amount of these resources.
кодировать в виде
• The scattering angle is coded into a ten-digit binary number.
колебание
. без колебания; большие изменения • Fluctuations in climate are considerable in this area. • The costs remain practically unchanged with wide ...
колебание маятника
• Oscillation (or Swing) of a pendulum.
колебание функций
матем. • Oscillation of functions.
колебания относительно
• Temperature fluctuations about the freezing point.
колебания температуры
• Fluctuations in (or of) temperature. • Variations in temperature.
конец
см. на противоположных концах; положить конец; с коническим концом
конец века
см. в конце века
конечная группа
• An additional phosphate group is attached to the terminal phosphate group.
конечная скорость
• When the raindrops attained their terminal velocity ...
конечная точка
• The terminal point of the operating line ...
конечная цель
• This phase has as its ultimate (or final) goal (or objective, or aim) full-sized plants which ... .
конечно
• These branches of science were, to be sure (or of course) clear precursors of plate tectonics.
конечный
. в конечном счёте; начальный и конечный; окончательный • Valves, switches, relays, and so on have finite lives, i.e. are good ...
конечный продукт
• The resulting (or terminal) product contained 99.6% SrCO3. • The ultimate (or end) products of this reaction are water and carbon dioxide.
конечный результат
. окончательный результат • The end effect would be that the top layer would contain ... • The end (or final, or ultimate) result will be to speed up ...
конкретнее
• This invention relates to a broad class of novel organometallic compounds; more particularly (or specifically),present invention relates to novel and useful metallic ...
конкретно
см. подробно конкретность см. для конкретности
конкретный
• Let us take the specific case of the Earth and the Moon. • With the particular (or specific) construction shown in Fig. 16, air filters are always supplied. • The specific ...
конкретный пример
• This is best illustrated by a specific (or concrete) example.
конкурировать с
. вполне может конкурировать с • Hydrogen addition reactions are in competition (or compete) with elimination of carbon dioxide. • The tube is ...
конструирование
• This seal has proved useful in the design of loudspeakers.
конструировать
. проектировать; сконструированный • The air hoists are designed (or constructed) to be easily moved and installed by one man. • Two new ...
конструировать из
• The machine is built (or made) of standard components. • The connectors are constructed of Neoprene.
конструировать с запасом
• Failures because of applied loads are relatively rare since most structures are overdesigned.
конструктивные особенности
• Test various constructional features. • It is possible to test out the design features of a future plant.
конструкция
. по своей конструкции; проект; прочная конструкция • The machine is of simple design (or construction).
консультироваться у специалиста
• A change of material is then necessary, and specialist advice should be sought (or obtained) (or a specialist should be consulted).
контакт
. вступать в контакт; находиться в контакте • Good exposure of water surfaces to the passing air is achieved.
контроль
. тщательный контроль • The restrictors can be adjusted to give precise control over the movements of the ball.

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